8 Vocabulary

I am not going to list too many words on this website. Google Translate has everything. You will just see some most frequently used words here. Please try to remember every word listed here. It is the key to learn our language and be able to speak Chinese.
Please click the menu to select what category of words.

Or go to next page: common structures


8.1: Nouns
Date & Time
Meals
Weeks
Months
Our World
Study
Economy & Business
People
Country
Continent
Transportation
Names
–Where does my name come from
Animals
Plants
Home & House
Family
Relatives
Shopping
Science & Environment
History
Religion
Politics
Movie & TV
Games & Sports & Exercises
ENTERTAINMENT LEISURE & NIGHTLIFE
FOOD & RESTAURANTS
Grains & Crops
Vegetables
Fruits
Drinks
Profession
Art & Performance
Hobbies
Education
BABY & KIDS
BODY & HEALTH
Payment
Colors

Travel

travel = lvxing /lewshing
passport = Huzhao / Hoodsao
flight = hangban /hungban
airport = jichang / jeetsung
luggage = xingli / shinglee
suitcase = xinglixiang / shinglee shyung
hotel = jiuDian
country = xiangcun
inn = lvguan
restaurant = canguan
museum = boWuguan
The Great Wall = changcheng
The Forbidden City = Gugong
ticket = Piao




Date & Time

today = jintian
yesterday = zuotian
day before yesterday = qiantian
day after tomorrow = houtian
morning = zaoShang
noon = zhongwu
afternoon = Xiawu
evening/night = wanShang




Meals

breakfast = zaocan
lunch = zhongcan
supper/dinner = wancan




Weeks

Monday = xingqi yi
Tuesday = xingqi Er
Wednesday = xingqi San
Thursday = xingqi Si
Friday = xingqi wu
Saturday = xingqi Liu
Sunday = xingqi Qi




Months

January = yi Yue
February = Er Yue
March = San Yue
April = Si Yue
May = wu Yue
June = Liu Yue
July = qi Yue
August = ba Yue
September = jiu Yue
October = shi Yue
November = shiyi Yue
December = shi’Er Yue




Our World

world = Shijie
society = SheHui
communication = goutong
language = yuyan
Internet = yintewang
tool = gongju
website = wangzhan




Study

book = shu
course = Kecheng
teacher = laoshi
student = xuesheng




Economy & Business

profit = Lirun
investment = touzi
economy = jingJi
business =shengYi
finance = jinrong
bank = yinhang
government = zhengfu
lawyer = lvshi
company = gongsi
reform = gaige
trade = Maoyi
small business = xiao qiye
salary /wage = gongzi
income = shouRu
cost = chengben
tax = Shui




People

boy = nanhai
girl = newhai
man = nanren
woman = newren
people/person = ren
baby = baobao
sweetheart = baobei
old man = laotou
old woman = lao Furen / lao popo
human / mankind = renlei / renLay
ethnic group = minzu /mindsoo
minority ethnic group = shaoshu minzu




Country

country = guojia
China = zhongguo / dsonggwar
USA = meiguo / maygwar
UK = yingguo / yinggwar
Canada = jianada / jarnarDar
Australia = Aodaliya / AoDarLeeYar [This is one of the Chinese words with every syllable being accented]
India = Yindu
France = faguo / fargwar
Germany = deguo / dergwar
Russia = eluosi / elwarsir
Italy = yidali /YeeDarLee
New Zealand = xinxilan / Shinsheelan
Ireland = Aierlan / Eye’erlan




Continent

continent = Dazhou
race = zhongzu
Asia = Yazhou / Yardsou
Asian = Yazhouren / Yardsouren
Europe = ouzhou / oudsou
European = ouzhouren / oudsouren
North America = beimei / baymay
South America = nanmei / nanmay
Africa = feizhou / faydsou
African = feizhouren/ faydsouren
Antarctica = nanjizhou /nanjeedsou
Latin America = lading meizhou /larding maydsou
Hispanic = lameiYi renzhong /larmayYee rendsong




Transportation

plane = feiji / fayjee
train = huoche / hwartser
taxi = chuzuche /truedsootser
bus = gongGongqiche / gongGongCheetser
car = qiche / Cheetser




Names

Some of you may not know that Chinese names(like other oriental names: Japanese and Korean…) put surname in the front, and then the given name. This reflects one of the profound differences in Chinese and western cultures. In our traditional culture, family comes first, while in western society, kids leave their parents when they are about 18 to become an independent individual. 

Most Chinese names have three words. Some have only two because some parents thought it was cool and trendy at one time, not anymore. Everything is back to tradition. Very few Chinese names have four words, that’s because those families have two words in their surnames. 

The biggest families in China are: Li, Wang and Zhang. You need to remember their accurate pronunciations because there will be many Chinese locals with one of those surnames. Over three hundred millions of them added together!



–Where does my name come from

Just introduce a little bit about my name, so you may remember me in the future, who spent over a month building this website.
My Chinese name is Luo Jun. Luo is my family name, Jun is the given name. Luo’s original meaning is net, the tool our ancestors used to catch fish and birds as food. Jun means military/army. When it was recommended to my parents by one of my neighbors to be my first name, in the 70s of last century, everyone was proud of our army which was defending our country and beating American imperialism. And the army was loyal soldiers protecting our great leader Chairman Mao. But somehow in that special Red and Dark era my neighbor, a cool aunt who had a little bit more connection to the outside world than my parents, thought it was trendy, and ok, to name a boy with just one word, instead of two words. So, it seems in the 70s, a few years before Mao died, there was some air of freedom and trend in the country. 




Animals

animal = Dongwu / DongWoo
chicken = ji / Jee
duck = yazi / yards
dog = gou / go
cat = mao (same sound with Mao the Chairman, and hair, and ten cents)
cow = nai niu / naineo
buffalo = shui niu /shwayneo
pig = zhu /drew
sheep = yang / yung
tiger = laohu /laohoo
lion = shizi /shirds
dragon = long
phoenix = Fenghuang / Fenghwung
fox = huli /hoolee
wolf = lang / lung
monkey = houzi / holds
fish = yu / yew
snake = she /sher
spider = zhizhu /dsirdrew
butterfly = hudie / hoodyeah
bee = mifeng/Meefeng
bug = chongzi / tsongds
ant = mayi / maryee
bird = niao /nyao
peacock = kongque / kongTray


Plants

plant = zhiwu / dsirWoo
grass = cao / tsao
tree = shu / shoe
flower = hua / hwah
rose = meigui / maygway
orchid = lanhua / lanhwah
pine = songshu / songshoe
bamboo = zhuzi / dsoods
plum blossom = meihua / mayhwah
peony = mudan /mooDan




Home & House

home = jia / jar
room = rangjian /fungjan
door = men
lock = suo / swar
window = chuang / trwung
floor = diban / Deeban
roof = wuding / wooding
lamp = taideng
desk = shuzhuo / shoodswar
table = zhuozi / dswards
kitchen = chufang / tsoofung
bedroom = woshi /WarShir
living room = keting / Kerting
bathroom = weishengjian / Wayshengjan
yard = yuanzi / Ywands
garage = cheku / tserKoo
garden = huayuan / hwah-ywan




Family

father = fuqin
dad = baba
mother = muqin
mom = mama
sister = jiemei
brother = xiongdi
elder brother = gege
younger brother = didi
elder sister = jiejie
younger sister = meimei
father’s father = yeye
father’s mother = nainai
mother’s father = waigong (lit. outside grandpa)
mother’s mother = waipo (lit. outside grandma)




Relatives

father’s elder brother = bobo
wife of bobo = bomu
father’s younger brother = shushu
wife of shushu = shenshen
sister of father = guma
husband of guma = gufu
brother of mother = jiujiu
wife of jiujiu = jiuma
For the word cousin, there are eight translations for it, depending on his/her gender, age, and which side of relative. We can learn that later as it is not very necessary to remember all of them. It is acceptable to call them as they have the same parents with you.




Shopping

shopping = gouwu
shop = shangdian
grocery = rizadian
supermarket = chaoshi




Science & Environment

science = kexue / kershway
chemistry = huaxue
physics = wuli
air = kongqi
water = shui
soil = turang
earth = tu
land = tuDi
pollution = wuran
life = shengMing
death = siwang
energy = nengLiang
coal = mei
crude oil = yuanyou
gas (for the car) = qiyou
greenhouse effect = wenShi Xiaoying
sea level = hai pingmian
mountain = shan
river = he
plain = pingyuan
sea = hai
ocean = yang
lake = hu
forest = senlin
agriculture = nongye
industry = gongye
paddy field = Daotian
factory = gongchang
sun = Taiyang
moon = YueLiang
earth = Diqiu
galaxy = xingxi
solar system = Taiyang Xi
innovation = Chuangxin




History

history = lishi
dynasty = chaoDai
emperor = huangDi
king = guowang
queen = wanghou / nvwang
prince = wangzi
princess = gongzhu




Religion

religion = zongjiao
politics = zhengzhi
Muslim = Musilin
Budda = fo
Buddhism = foJiao
Christ = yesu
God = ShangDi
god = shen
Islam = yisilan
priest = shenFoo / Mushi
Bible = Shengjing
Koran = gulanjing
Confucianism = ruJiao
Taoism = DaoJiao




Politics

government = Zhengfu
law = faLv
court = fating
judge = faguan
police = jingcha
party = dang
CCP = Zhongguo Gongchandang




Movie & TV

movie /film = Dianying
TV = DianShi
actor = yanywan
actress = new yanywan
Star Wars = xingqiu Dazhan
theater = Dianyingyuan




Games & Sports & Exercises

game = youXi
sport = tiYew
basketball = lanqiu
football = zuqiu
swimming = youyong
swimming pool = youyong chi
running = paoBu
exercise = DuanLian
GYM = Jianshenfang
walk = Buxing
competition = biSai
computer game = Diannao youXi




ENTERTAINMENT LEISURE & NIGHTLIFE

entertainment = yuLe
nightlife = Yeshenghuo
leisure = xiuxian
sing = Changge
dance = Tiaowu
party = PaiDui




FOOD & RESTAURANTS

food = shiWu
restaurant = canguan
chicken = ji
egg = Dan
beef = neoRou
pork = zhuRou
mutton = yangRou
fried rice = chaoFan
fried noodle = chaoMian
noodle = Miantiao
steamed rice = miFan
steamed & stuffed dumpling = baozi
steamed dumpling = mantou
boiled stuffed dumpling = shuijiao / jiaozi




Grains & Crops

grain = liangshi
rice = shuiDao
wheat = xiaoMai
corn = Yewmi
bean = Douzi




Vegetables

vegetable = shuCai
cabbage = baoCai
carrot = hong luobo
onion = yangcong




Fruits

fruit = shuiguo
apple = pingguo
peach = taozi
banana = xiangjiao
grape = putao
orange = juzi
pear = lizi
water melon = xigua




Drinks

drinks = yinLiao
beer = pijiu
juice = guozhi
apple juice = pingguo zhi
orange juice = chengzhi
spirit = baijiu
tea = cha
coffee = kafei
cocktail = jiweijiu




Profession

profession = occupation = zhiYe
teacher = laoshi
lawyer = Lvshi
doctor = yisheng
nurse = HuShi
worker = gongren
farmer = nongmin
manager = jingli
singer = Geshou
actor = yanYwan
artist = Yishujia
driver = siji




Art & Performance

art = Yishu
performing = biaoyan
stage = wutai
painter = Huajia
movie producer = Dianying Zhipianren




Hobbies

hobby = ShiHao
gardening = yuanYi
biking = qi danche




Education

education = JiaoYu
school = xueXiao
college = Daxue
tuition fee = xueFei
book = shu




BABY & KIDS

baby = baobao
kid = haizi
diaper = NiaoBu
milk = nai




BODY & HEALTH

body = shenti
health = Jiankang
hand = shou
arm = shouBi
leg = tui
foot = jiao
head = tou
eye = yanJing
nose = bizi
ear = erduo
finger = shouzhi
toe = jiaozhi
hair = touFa
tooth = yachi
mouth = zui
lip = zuichun
tongue = shetou
shoulder = Jian
skin = pifu
neck = bozi
chest = xiong
back = Bei
waist = yao
hip = kuan
thigh = Datui
knee = xiGai
fist = quantou
face = lian
ass = Pigu
breast = rufang
stomach = Duzi
heart attack = xinZangBing faZuo
stroke = Zhongfeng
stomachache = DuziTong
headache = touTong
toothache = yaTong
high blood pressure = gao xueya
arthritis = guanjieyan
hospital = yiYuan
doctor = yisheng
nurse = HuShi
clinic = zhensuo
dentist = yayi
surgery = shouShu
surgeon = Waike yisheng
therapist = Zhiliaoshi
Chinese traditional medicine = zhongyi
herb medicine = zhongYao
acupuncture = zhenjiu
drugstore = YaoDian




Payment

Besides Yuan, Chinese currency has a less formal unit word Kuai(Kwhy).
payment = Fukuan/Fookwan
bill = Zhangdan / Dsungdan
cash = Xianjin / Shyanjin
credit card = XinYongka / ShinYongkar
receipt = shouJu / showDrew




Colors

red = hongSe / hongSer
green = LvSe / LewSer
orange = juhuangSe
yellow = huangSe
blue = lanSe
white = baiSe
black = heiSe
gray = huiSe
silver = yinSe
gold = jinSe
hazel = DanHeSe
pink = fenhongSe
brown = zongSe


8.2: Pronouns
I/me = wo
you = ni/nin
he/she/it/him/her = Ta
we/us = women
you (plural) =nimen
they/them = tamen
my/mine = wode
your/yours = nide
his/her/hers = Tade
our/ours = womende
your/yours = nimende
their/theirs = tamende
———-
myself = woZiji
yourself = niZiji
himself = taZiji
ourselves = womenZiji
yourselves = nimenZiji
themselves = tamenZiji
———-
here = Zherli
there = Nali
this = Zher
that = Na
these = Zherxie
those = Naxie
———-
how many/much = duoshao
several = ji
who / whom = shui
how = zenme
where = nali


8.3 Verbs
Some most frequently used verbs:
do = Zuo
speak/say = shuo
smile = weiXiao
laugh = Xiao
cry = ku (said) or Jao (for help, etc.)
eat = chi
drink = he
walk = zou
run = pao
jump = Tiao
sit = Zuo
bring = Dailai
take away = Daizou
leave/depart = likai
hold = zhuaZhu
fly = fei
hide = duo
read = du
buy = mai
Sell = Mai
steal = tou
push = tui
pull = la
climb = pa
see = KanJan
look = Kan
listen = ting
hear = tingJian
write = xie
prove = Zhengming []
there is/are / have = you [yow]
sing = Changge [Tsunggher]
dance = Tiaowu [Tyaowoo]
study = xuexi [shwayshee]
learn = xueHui [shwayHway]

Click FAQ to find the link to Google Translate Dictionary.


8.4 Adjectives
great = weiDa
beautiful = PiaoLiang
good looking = haoKan
handsome = yingJun
cute = keAi
funny = haoXiao
warm = Wennuan
cool = Ku
quick/fast = Kuai
slow = Man
good/well/fine = hao
clear = qingchu
rich = Fuyu
poor = qiong
==========
kind = Shanliang
polite = liMao
rude = Culu
gentle = Wenhe

experienced = jingYan fengFu
clever / smart = congming
stupid = yuchun
diligent = qinFen
calm = lengJing
==========
sweet = tian
bitter = ku
salty = xian
sour = suan
hot/spicy = La
==========

8.5 Adverbs
now = XianZai
then = dangshi
often = jingchang
always = zongShi
usually = tongchang
next = XiayiGe
already = yijing
generally = yiban
frequently = pinfan
seldom = henshao
ever = cengjing
never = congmeiyou
soon = henKuai
too = Tai
immediately = Liji
finally = Zuizhong
shortly = henKuai
before/ago = yiqian
sometimes = youshi
once = cengjing
twice = liangCi
lately /recently = Zuijin
personally = Geren laishuo


8.6 Particles
Six most frequently used particles in Chinese are:

  • de: indicating it is a fact.
  • ma: indicating a question.
  • ne: 1) indicating a question, 2) adding an exaggerate tone
  • ba: a tone of 1)guessing 2)or agreement
  • a & ya: adding a relaxing tone.

There are some other modal particles in Chinese that are not necessary to learn at this stage.


8.7 measure words/unit words
The most frequently used measure word in Chinese is Ge(Gher). Many objects can use this measure word, including people.
Probably the second most frequently used measure word is zhi, which is used for many animals, and objects like shoes, etc.
There are no strict rules to remember for the use of measure words. You just need to talk to Chinese locals more and learn on the way.
If you forgot which measure word to use when you talk to a native Chinese speaker, just use Ge. It will be fine if it’s wrong, the meaning will not be messed up, there will be no misunderstanding.


8.8 Numbers

0 = ling
1 = yi
2 = Er
3 = san
4 = Si
5 = wu
6 = Liu
7 = qi
8 = ba
9 = jiu
10 = shi
11 = shi yi
19 = shi jiu
24 = Er shi Si
98 = jiu shi ba
752 = qi bai wu shi Er
1,048 = yi qian ling Si shi ba
24,000 = liang Wan Si qian
865,210 = ba shi Liu Wan
wu qian Er bai yi shi

In Chinese, numbers are separated like this:
195,3724
instead of 1,953,724
1,0000 = yi Wan
10,0000 = 100,000 = shi Wan
100,0000 = 1,000,000 = yi bai Wan
1000,0000 = 10,000,000 = yiqian Wan
1,0000,0000 = 100,000,000 = yi Yi
10,0000,0000 = 1 billion = shi Yi
=============================================
1/2 = Er fenzhi yi
9% = baifenzhi jiu
=============================================
0.2 = ling dian Er
1.98 = yi dian jiu ba

山水之间汉语课

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